ABCC Association of British Chambers of Commerce
ABI Association of British Insurers
Ad Valorem - according to the value A fixed percentage of the value of goods that is used to calculate customs duties and taxes.
Admirality Court A court having jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.
Advising Bank A bank that receives a letter of credit from an issuing bank, verifies its authenticity, and forwards the original letter of credit to the exporter without obligation to pay.
AF Advance freight (i.e. prior to shipment)
AFT At or towards the stern or rear of a ship.
Affreightment The hiring of a ship in whole or in part.
Air Freight Forwarder A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. He usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He issues his own air waybills to the exporters, is licensed by the CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board) and has the status of an indirect air carrier.
Air Waybill (AWB) A bill of landing that covers both international and domestic flights transporting goods to a specified destination. This is a non-negotiable documents of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions.
AITA International Air Transport Association, IATA, (French, German).
Alongside A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered "alongside" are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded abroad the ship.
AN Advice note
ANF Arrival notification form
AP Additional premium
Arbitration Clause A standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.
ATP Accorde Transports Perissable, (European Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs)
BACS Banker's Automated Clearing System
BAF Bunker adjustment factor: A fuel surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight rate reflecting the movement in the market price for bunkers.
Balance of Trade The difference between a country's total imports and exports; if exports exceed imports, favorable balance of trade exists, if not, a trade deficit is said to exist.
Ballast Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship at sea.
Barter Trade in which merchandise is exchanged directly for other merchandise without use of money. Barter is an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.
BCN Banker's Cover Note
B/D Banker's Draft
B/E Bill of Exchange
BEA British Exporters Association
Beam The maximum breadth of a ship.
Berth Place alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo.
BIFA British International Freight Association
Bill of Entry A shipper's detailed statement for Customs purposes of the nature and value of goods in a consignment.
Bill of Exchange (B/E) Legally defined as "an unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person, or to bearer". It is the most general method of obtaining payment for goods shipped abroad.
Bill of Lading (B/L) Is a document signed by the carrier and acts as a contract of affreightment, a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
Bolster This is a piece of equipment equivalent to the bottom of a container without sides. Often used for stacking parcels of sawn timber and bags of cocoa. Otherwise known as a flat or pontoon
Bonded Warehouse A warehouse storage area or manufacturing facility in which imported goods may be stored or processed without payment of customs duties.
BOTB British Overseas Trade Board
Bottle screws, container shoes, twist locks, chains and chain tensioners: All pieces of lashing equipment for securing cargo (twist locks and container shoes are used only on containers, pontoons and stackmasters).
Boules A boule is a log that has been sliced through into at least 12 pieces. The bark is left intact.
Breakbulk: Another term for general cargo, i.e. non unitised cargoes.
B/S Bill of Sale
BSC British Shippers Council
BSI British Standards Institution
BSS British Standard Specification
Bunkers: Name given for vessel’s fuel and diesel oil supplies (originates from coal bunkers).
BV Bureau Veritas
CAAC Customs and Allied Affairs Committee
CAD Cash against documents - Full shipping documents are sent to a bank or an agent at the port of destination with instructions that they are to be handed over to the consignee only in exchange for the sum due.
CAF Currency adjustment factor: A surcharge expressed as a percentage (or subtracted) from the freight rate compensating the Line (or shipper) for a change in the exchange rates relationship between the currency of freight collected from the shippers and currency of costs incurred by the Line.
CAN Customs Assigned Number
Carnet A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into certain foreign countries (for display, demonstration, or similar purpose) without paying duties or posting bonds.
Carrier Any person who undertakes to perform or precure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or any combination.
Cartel Is an association of several independent national or international business organizations that regulates competition by controlling the prices, the production, or the marketing of a product or an industry.
CBI Confederation of British Industry
CCA Connecting carrier agreement: A contract between carriers such that line or both operators will transport a said amount of cargo on behalf of the other on the other's Bill of Lading, thus acting as a bridge for crosstraded cargoes needing a first or second leg carrier to compliment the first
CC/O Certificate of consignment/origin
CCT Common Customs Tariff (within the EU)
CD Customs declaration
C & D Collected and delivered
CDV Current domestic value
C & E Customs & Excise
Cell Guides Upright metal fasteners welded to the ship's deck to secure the containers for the sea journey. Containers aree secured to these sections using twist locks which act as keys bolting the container's four corners to the ship's deck and/or other containers in the stack.
CFR Cost and Freight - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of four 'C' terms. The seller must clear the goods for export. A sales term denoting that the seller is responsible for arranging and paying for the carriage of goods to the agreed port of discharge, excluding insurance costs. CFR is used for goods that are to be carried by sea.
CFS Container freight station
CH Custom House
Charges forward Charges to be paid by the buyer on arrival of the goods.
Charterer Person or company who hires a ship from a shipowner for a period of time.
Charter party The contract between the owner of a ship and the individual or company chartering it. Among other specifications, the contract usually stipulates the exact obligations of the ship-owner (loading the goods, carrying the goods to a certain point, returning to the charterer with other goods, etc.); or it provides for an outright leasing of the vessel to the charterer, who then is responsible for his own loading and delivery. In either case, the charter party sets forth the exact conditions and requirements agreed upon by both sides.
Chassis A wheel assemble including bogies constructed to accept mounting of containers.
CIF Cost, Iinsurance and Freight - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of four 'C' terms. Another selling term but includes insurance and handling shipment costs. The party that has sold CIF has complete control over the shipment of goods. The seller has the same obligation under CFR but must also procure marine insurance. The seller is only required to obtain minimum coverage.
CIF & C Cost, Insurance, Freight & Commission
CIF & E Cost, Insurance, Freight & Exchange
CIF & I Cost, Insurance, Freight & Interest
CIFC & I Cost, Insurance, Freight, Commission & Interest
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of four 'C' terms. The seller has the same obligation asunder CPT but is also responsible for contracts for insurance of goods during the carriage. The seller also pays the insurance premium. Under CIP the seller is only required to obtain minimum insurance cover.
CITHA Confederation of International Trading Houses Associations
CLECAT European Liaison Committee of Common Market Forwarders
CO or C/O Certificate of origin - A document to prove the place of growth, production or manufacture of goods specified thereon.
Cocobod Ghana Cocoa Board
COD Cash on delivery, customers own delivery
Combo/Combi Combination vessel: A dry vessel designed to carry either dry bulk (grain, etc,) break bulk or containers. Such vessels are normally equipped with their own cranes.
Conference A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates.
Consignee (C/nee) Person to whom goods are to be delivered by the carrier at the place of destination. Otherwise known as the receiver.
Consignor The sender of the goods.
Consular Invoice An invoice, prepared on a special form and legalised by the Consul of the importing country, usually required by the Customs of that country to confirm details and origin.
Container Metal box used for the carriage of cargo. Usual dimensions 20 x 8 x 8.5ft or 40 x 8 x 8.5ft.
Container demurrage Money paid by the shipper for the use of containers or other Line owned equipment beyond a specified ‘free time’ period.
Container vessel Ship specially designed to carry shipping containers. The vessel often has bays into which the containers are lowered and where they are held in place by upright steel sections called cell guides. Containers are frequently carried on deck where they need to be lashed and secured.
COU Clip-on unit
C/P Charter party
CPT Carriage Paid To - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of four 'C' terms. The seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. Under CPT the seller must clear the goods for export ie obtain the export licence, pay export taxes and fees if required and furnish the buyer with the invoice and relevant documents. CPT can be used for any mode of transport
Cranage Charge for use of wharf crane when a ship's own appliances for loading or unloading are now used.
CRF Clean Report of Findings, details the quality, quantity and state of goods
CRIG Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
CRN Customs registered number
Curl Small nugget of dense hardwood which has a high oil content. This is used for bearings and is very rare. Sometimes used in Takaradi.
C/V Certificate of value
C/VO Certificate of Value and Origin
CWE Cleared without examination
DAF Delivered At Frontier - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms. The seller is obliged to deliver the goods at the frontier before the customs border of the adjoining contry. The goods should be made available and cleared for export. The seller must also provide documents to enable the buyer to take delivery such as the document of transport or warehouse warrant. The buyer must pay for on-carriage and cover import clearance ie import licence, duties, taxes and fees.Note: It is important that the frontier is clearly defined.
DDP Delivered duty paid
DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms. The seller is obliged to deliver the goods on the quay at the port of destination, cleared for importation. The seller must pay unloading costs but not provide import clearance The buyer must take delivery of goods at the country of importation and must cover any duties, such as import licences, pay duties, taxes and fees. Demurrage Quay rent: Money paid by the shipper for occupying port space beyond a specified ‘free time’ period.
DEQ Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid) - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms. The seller is obliged to deliver the goods on the quay at the port of destination, cleared for importation. The seller must pay unloading costs and provide import clearance such as import licences, pay duties, taxes and fees. The buyer simply takes delivery of the goods.
DES Delivered Ex Ship - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of five 'D' terms. The seller is obliged to deliver the goods on board the ship at the port of destination, uncleared for importation. The seller must provide documents to enable the buyer to take delivery of the goods ie the bill of lading. The buyer must pay unloading costs and provide import clearance ie duties, taxes & fees.
DGN Dangerous Goods Note
DF Dead freight (shipper or charterer pays for space booked but not occupied)
Disbursement Sums paid out by a ship’s agent at a port on behalf of the owner.
Discharging Removing goods from a ship.
D/O Delivery order
Draft Widely used alternative spelling of draught. Depth to which a ship is immersed in the water. This depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.
Dry Van A basic 20/40ft container.
DTI Department of Trade and Industry
Dunnage Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide a space in which the tynes of a forklift truck may be inserted.
DWT Deadweight: Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.
EAR Export after repair
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECI Export Consignment Identifier
ECOFIN Economic and Financial Affairs Council (EC)
ECPD Export Cargo Packing Declaration
EFTA European Free Trade Association Endorsee Person to whom a bill of exchange is transferred by the endorsement of a third party. Endorser One who endorses a bill, and thereby accepts liability for it.
ERP Economic Recovery Programme for the cocoa industry in Ghana launched in 1983
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival.
ETD Estimated Time of Departure.
ETS Estimated Time of Sailing
EU European Union
EXW Ex Works - One of the thirteen Incoterms. This represents the seller's minimum obligation. The seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available at his premises to the buyer. He is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer or for the clearing of the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all the costs and risks in taking the goods frrom the seller's premises to the deired destination.
FAS Free Alongside Ship - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of three 'F' terms. The seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel/quay. If cargo is sold/bought FAS it excludes loading, discharging and seafreight costs. It is to a customer’s distinct advantage to buy goods FAS, because they then have more control over their shipment.
FBY Free buyers yard: As FOT but also includes delivery to buyer’s premises.
FCA Free Carrier - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of three 'F' terms. This is the main term for handing over goods for carriage and can be used irrespective of the mode of transport. The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named point. If no point has been indicated the seller may choose within the range stipulated where the carrier should take charge of the goods.
FCL Full container load: A container with one shippers cargo only.
F & D Freight and demurrage
FEU Forty foot equivalant unit - see TEU.
FFA Forward Freight Agreement.
FIATA International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association
FILO Free in, liner out: Seafreight which the shipper pays load costs and the carrier pays discharge costs.
FIO Free in and out: Freight booked FIO includes the seafreight, but not loading and discharging costs.
FIOS Free in and out and stowed: As FIO but includes stowage costs.
FIOT Free in and out and trimmed: As above but includes trimming, e.g. the levelling out of bulk cargoes.
First of Exchange First or principal copy of a bill of exchange to be presented and honoured the other copies then being automatically cancelled.
FIT Federation of International Traders
Flat This is a piece of equipment equivalent to the bottom of a container without sides. Often used for stacking parcels of sawn timber and bags of cocoa. Otherwise known as a pontoon or bolster.
FOB Free Onboard - One of the thirteen Incoterms and one of three 'F' terms. Sales term denoting that the seller is responsible for delivering goods to the port of loading agreed in the contract and for loading them onto the ship nominated by the buyer. FOB’s usually refer to the loading/terminal costs. The seller fulfils his obligationto deliver the goods when the goods have passed over the ship's rail.
Foreign Bill A bill of exchange drawn on an acceptor overseas.
FOT Free on truck: Includes all loading, discharging and seafreight costs. Also includes costs of placing goods onto trucks at the quay.
FRA Forward Rate Agreement
Free discharge Free out: Includes loading costs and seafreight only.
Freight Account The debit note received from the shipowner for freight due on goods shipped.
Freight Collect Forward Payable by consignee.
Freight Forwarder Company or person who organises transportation of cargo including one or all of the following:- sea, air or rail transport, haulage and customs clearance.
Freight Release Shipowner's authorisation to captain to give delivery of goods, freight having been paid on them.
FTA Freight Transport Association or Free Trade Agreements
FTL Full Trailer Load
GCBS General Council of British Shipping
GCCSFA Ghana Cocoa, Coffee and Sheanut Farmers Association
General Average A contribution made by each shipper, according to the value of his goods shipped, towards a loss or expense incurred in time of peril at sea by an act of sacrifice for the general good. Is usually recoverable under the ordinary marine insurance policy.
General Cargo Any cargo that is not carried in a container or vehicle/machinery that can be loaded/discharged using its own power, e.g. palletised, bagged, bales, bundles, crates, etc.
GNP Gross national product
Gooseneck Devise for connecting a tugmaster to a mafi trailer. It is attached to the tugmasters 'fifth wheel'
Gross Weight Total weight of goods and packing.
Groupage A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers, i.e. containing more than one shipper’s cargo. Otherwise known as LCL (Less than a container load)
GRT Gross registered tonnage
GST Ghana Stock Exchange
HL Heavy lift
HMC Her Majesty's Customs
HMC&E Her Majesty's Customs and Excise
HMSO Her Majesty's Stationery Office
HVR Hague-Visby Rules
IATA International Air Transport Association
ICB International Container Bureau
ICC International Chamber of Commerce, Institute Cargo Clauses
ICCH International Commodities Clearing House
ICCO International Cocoa Council
ICD Inland Clearance Depot
ICHCA International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association
ICS International Chamber of Shipping or Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers
ID Import Duty
IDR Import Duty Report, stipulates the value of an imported good and the amount to be paid as duty. Nigeria only.
IFF Institute of Freight Forwarders
I/L Import Licence
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMO International Maritime Organisation
Incoterms A set of purchase terms (13 main ones and several secondary types) accredited by the International Chamber of Commerce. Denote the points at which shipper, carrier and consigneee risk and responsibility start and end.
INSA International Shipowners' Association
Intermodal Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey.
IOE Institute of Export
IRN Import Release Note
ISF International Shipping Federation
ISO International standards organisation.
Keelage Toll on vessels entering a port.
L/C Letter of Credit
LCL Less than a container load: A container with cargoes from/for different shippers/receivers, i.e. containing more than one shipper’s cargo.
LILO Liner in, liner out or full liner terms: Qualification to a freight rate which signifies that it consists of the ocean carriage and the cost of cargo handling at the loading and discharging ports (to ship’s rail) according to the custom of a particular set of ports.
Lashing To hold goods in position by the use of, for example, wires, ropes, chains, or straps.
LASH Lighter aboard ship: This technique for sea transport of cargoes uses barges floated into specially designed vessels. One of our competitors, Baco Line employs such vessels on the Europe/Africa trade. This technique enables low drafted barges to access shallow ports ie some of those in the Niger delta including Onne and Warri.
Lane metre A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro Ro ships whereby each unit of space (linear metre) is represented by an area of deck 1m in length by 2.5m in width.
Laytime/Laydays Time given by the shipowner to allow a chartered vessel to load and/or discharge cargo.
Laycan Abbreviation for laydays cancelling periods during which a shipowner must tender notice that a ship has arrived at the port of loading and is ready to load cargo.
Letter of Credit This is a written undertaking given by a Bank to pay the Seller/Exporter an amount of money within a specified time provided the Seller/Exporter presents specified documents which are in accordance with the terms of a letter of credit. A "Confirmed Irrevocable Letter of Credit" is the form of undertaking which provides the greatest security of payment to the exporter
LI Letter of Indemnity
LIC Local import control
LIFFE London International Financial Futures Exchange
Linear metre Method of measuring volume of cargo on Ro Ro vessels, in which the measurement is an estimate of the length of the cargo laid end to end. (See lane metre.)
LOA Length over all: Vessel length.
LO/LO Lift on/lift off
Mafi A generic term for a wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo, also properly known as a roll trailer. It may remain on board throughout ocean passage or be used as a ‘slave’ trailer to transport cargo to and from the vessel once on quay.
Manifest Lists produced by the loading port agents with a detailed breakdown of all cargo to be loaded including Bill of Lading number, weight, volume, shippers and receiver’s names, etc.
Megacarrier One of the predatory massive shipping lines that compete on the largely saturated east/west trades.
NMB National Maritime Board
NPC National Ports Council / Nigerian Ports Charge (Carriers surcharge given extra costs imposed by ports authority)
NRT Net registered tonnage
NVOCC Non vessel owning common carrier
OBO Oil bulk ore: A vessel capable of carrying both dry and liquid bulk cargoes.
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development
OEEC Organisation for European Economic Co-operation
OFT Office of Fair Trading
OOG - Out of gauge/profile When cargo loaded is not within the dimensions of an ISO pontoon/stackmaster on which it is placed and protrudes from the sides or is too high.
Open top container Container with a removable fabric roof which enables heavy/bulk cargo to be loaded into the container by crane/elevator.
Overlanded Cargo discharged but not on the manifest, generally by accident.
Pallet A wooden frame on which pieces of general cargo are placed so they can be lifted using a forklift truck.
PBC Produce Buying Company Limited, Ghana. Buys cocoa beans from farmers at village level and sells direct to the government at guaranteed prices.
PD Port dues
PE Period entry
Pilferage Petty theft (Sometimes major!).
P/L Partial loss
POD Paid on delivery/Proof of delivery
Pontoon This is a piece of equipment equivalent to the bottom of a container without sides. Often used for stacking parcels of sawn timber and bags of cocoa. Otherwise known as a flat or bolster
Port 1. Harbour having facilities for ships to moor, load and discharge. 2. The left hand side of a ship when facing forwards.
Port Captain The person who plans stowage and supervises loading and discharging of vessels. Also know as a Supercargo.
Primage Percentage added to freight and usually returned as a deferred rebate.
Prime Entry Statement of goods based on details included in the bill of lading.
Pro Forma Literally, a specimen, eg pro forma invoice, which is a specimen of the invoice as it would be were the order placed. In other words, it is a quotation.
PSD Pre-shipment document
PSI Pre-shipment Inspection
Reach Stacker A special container handling truck that can stack containers and reach behind two rows of containers.
REDS Registered Excise Shippers and Dealers
Reefer Refrigerated container that is fitted with a refrigerated unit for the carriage of cargoes that have to be frozen or chilled.
RN Removal Note
Rolltrailer A generic term for a wheeled trailer used for carrying cargo, also known as a mafi. It may remain on board throughout ocean passage or be used as a ‘slave’ trailer to transport cargo to and from the vessel once on quay.It has an underlayer with a steel chassis and equipped with solid rubber tyres. It is attached to a tugmaster with a gooseneck.
Ro Ro Roll on, Roll off: Handling of cargo onto or off ship by vehicles or trailers, which may remain onboard during sea passage or else can be taken on board by wheeled vehicles and the cargo stowed as general or unitised cargo.
SAD Single Administrative Document
Seafreight Charges for transporting cargo by sea. This does not cover any haulage or loading / discharging costs, sea transport only.
Shipper The manufacturer of the cargo or the party who contracts to ship the goods as per the Bill of Lading.
Ship's Manifest Captain's statement giving details of ship, crew, cargo, and ports of destination.
Shortlanded Cargo manifested for port but not discharged, either by accident or design.
Short shipped Cargo not loaded and left on key, either by accident or design.
SITC Standard International Trade Classification
SO Seller's option
SOB Shipped on board
SSN Standard Shipping Note
Stability It is of paramount importance that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded/discharged the stability is monitored by the navigating officer/Port Captain usually by computer, which takes into account the weight and position of the cargo within the vessel.
Stackmaster A pontoon with two collapsible ends.
Starboard Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end.
Stern The aftermost part of the ship.
Stevedore Port manual worker involved with the physical loading and discharging of vessels.
Stowage Order Before certain classes of goods, such as valuables, fragile or dangerous, are sent to the docks for shipment, a special stowage order must be obtained from the shipowner. It is the shipowner's authority to the ship-worker to accept the goods and stow them where indicated. It must accompany the goods to the docks.
Stowaway A person who illegally hides on a vessel to get free passage to another country (usually from a poor country to a more affluent one).
Supercargo The person who plans stowage and supervises loading and discharging of vessels. Also know as a Port Captain.
SWIFT Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications
SWL Safe Working load
Tank container A container suitable for carrying liquids or powder.
Tare The actual weight of the container only, without the goods.
TDC Total distribution costs
TDW Tons deadweight
Terminal A receiving point ie a freight station or a container yard.
TEU Twenty foot equivalent unit: A term for quantifying standard containers. 1 X 20’ container = 1 TEU 1 x 40 container = 2 x TEU or 1 x FEU A 1,200 TEU ship therefore has a theoretical capacity of 1,200 x 20’containers).
Time charter The hiring of a ship from a shipowner for a period of time.
Toplashing Rolltrailers and cassettes are secured with webbing. One end is attached to the ceiling, the other to the underlayer
Transhipment Transfer of goods from one ship to another.
TTC Tariff trade code
Tugmaster A tractor - often a four wheel drive - with a hydraulic trailer connection known as a ‘fifth wheel’ used to tow cargo on and off the vessels.
TURN Trader unique reference number
Turnbuckle A screw threaded device for tightening rods and chains and wire lashings
Twistlock Device for locking a container to the deck or to another container above or below. The locking var is fitted to the corner casting of the container and twisted with a handle.
Tynes Another term for the forks of a forklift truck.
U/D Under deck
UDEAC Central African Customs and Economic Union
UDEAO Union Douance et Economique d'Afrique Occidentale
UN United Nations
UNCTAD The United Nations Conference on Trade & Development
UNCITRAL The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
VAT Value Added Tax
Web Lashing Webbing made of artificial fibre which is tightened and locked with a winch.
Wharfage Fees for use of wharf in discharging cargo.
World Bank International bank for reconstruction and development